Biotechnology, the major branch of broader branch Technology among with Brain-Computer Interface is a member leading the future of Biotechnology. It consists of researches related to improvement in human health and everything related to human race development.
In the previous years, it had been one of the biggest leaps in technology with implementing the world’s fastest ever made vaccine for the cure of Covid-19 and almost successful completion of Brain-Computer Interface and many more.
Brain-Computer Interface – An Overview
A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a system of measurement for the activities of the Central Nervous System (CNS) to convert into an artificial output. BCIs can help to understand the function of the Central Nervous System (CNS). It may be further used to enhance, replace or restore the natural output of the CNS. BCI helps us to understand the interaction between CNS and its external and internal environment.
BCI may help to recover the lost function of the human organs like recovery of speaking or moving. A survey states, the functions of daily life are disrupted anyways. In Context to the previous criteria, It can also help the different organs of the body to react accordingly.
For example; It improves function like a warning to the sleepy driver.
BCI can help to recover the function of the damaged pathways of neurons since it can improve the signaling of the nerve between the body.
Hans Berger’s work in the field of human brain research and its electrical activity had a very first and very close impact on the discovery of BCI. He was the first guy to give the idea about mind mapping of the human brain with the help of external means. His development of electroencephalogram (EEG) was a major breakthrough in the field of medical science. With this help now researcher can able to record the activities of the human brain.
EEG neurofeedback has been used for decades. It was 1998 when researcher Philip Kenndy implanted the first-ever brain-computer interface object in the living human body. However, this BCI chip was limited to functioned and organized. The benefit from it was the development of the use of di-electrode.
Later John Donoghue and his team of Brown University formed a company Cyperkinetics which further had developed the BCI chip Braingate. But they failed to implement it.
In 2004, Jonathan Wolpaw and researcher at New York State Department of Health’s Wadsworth’s center integrated Braingate in the human brain for the first time.
We all know that our brain contains innumerous neurons or nerve cells that emit an electric signal which is carried out to one another with the help of neurons. Each neuron is connected with each other with dendrites and the axon carries the signal to other neurons and so on. These signals travel very fast nearly at the rate of 250kmph.
Although these neurons are insulated with myelin, some of the electric signals escape out from it. The scientist can detect this electric signal, interpret and use them to direct a device. That device will tell about the meaning of the signal, which can be further edited and complied with other impulses.
Now let us understand with an example: Suppose a person sees a red color its optic nerve will send the signal to the brain to analyze what does this signal means. Then the brain gonna tell that its means it is red.
During this transmission of a signal to the brain if some of the signals are able to escape and somehow if scientists are able to recognize that this impulse means red. Further, if the same signal is transmitted to a blind person externally then, the blind guy can also able to recall that it means red color.
Electroencephalography (EEG)is an electrophysiological method to measure the neural or electric brain activity by some external device. In most of the cases is non-invasive in which the electrodes are placed on a open source of cortex. Some times it may be invasive.
It has a vast use in the medical field and used to cure and diagnosing the brain abnormality. Experimentally it had been observed that it may diagnosed the brain of an alcoholic or an drug edit which is very good thing.
Types of BCI
There are many different techniques to measure the brain signaling.
Invasive Brain-Computer Interface
The micro-electrodes are placed directly in the cortex of the head to measure the signal neurons. There are many needle-like substances that are directly inserted.
Non-Invasive Brain-Computer Interface
In the non-invasive techniques, the sensors are placed on the scalp of the head. And from that sensor measures the electric potential produced by the brain (EEG) and magnetic field (MEG).
Semi-Invasive Brain-Computer Interface
In semi-invasive, the electrode is placed on the open surface of the brain from where it collects its data.
|The EEG signal takes place on the electrode which is the most external part of the electrode.||Here, the micro-electrodes are placed directly on the brain cortex.||Electrodes are placed on the open area of Brain.|
|Here, sometimes measurement maybe has some critical error while evaluating.||This is considered as best method for measuring signaling.||This is bit more precise than Non-Invasive.|
Apart from the above types of technology from the future i.e. Brain-Computer Interface, there may be some others too. Since the technology is in its very early phase. If you know some more and detailed stuff about the same, kindly reach out to us from a comment or through Mail.
Proper Experimental testing is the very first step toward any successful invention or innovation. Likely others, BCI is still under its very initial stages and needs a huge lot of research and development for a complete and best version of the same.
Testings Upon Monkeys
The very first step of testing is generally done upon the lower species i.e. rats or other species, here it includes Monkeys.
Initial testing on a spinally injured Monkey revealed a sharp recovery in the treatment phase of the Monkey. This revealed this technology is working as expected with healing and providing an extra layer of senses to the Living Species.
During the study on Monkey, it was found that they were even able to drive cars and feeding on their own. However, a Monkey is considered as the early ancestors of the most developed species on the planet but these species i.e. Monkeys without the integration of the Invasive Brain-Computer Interface weren’t seen doing such complex tasks.
Testings Upon Rat
The rat was the later phase of the study where the researchers or scientists tried to transmit the data from one rat to another placed far apart being impossible for physical interaction. One of them was taught some special tricks. Later, after some time period amazingly the other rat was found to easily perform the same.
Brain Computer Interface has showed impressive numbers in the previous years with the best of innovations left behind. Some of the most reliable and important applications are listed below:-
Treating Paralysis or Organ Defects
In BCI, the brain wave is recorded by an electroencephalogram (EEG) through electrodes that transmit the signal of the nerve to the computer. That computer encodes the command sent by the electrodes which allow the other to let know about the intention of an abnormal human who is unable to speak. Stephen Hawking uses this BCI to communicate with the world after his throat surgery.
Measuring Concentration Levels
With the help of EEG, we can very easily measure the concentration level of the brain. Since the electrodes which are connected to the human cortex can easily tell about the electric signal between the neurons. In the upcoming future, it may be a good replacement for the lie-dedicating machine.
BCI, would allow us to transfer the memories of a person to another person. If would be able to able to save or record the data of brain activity in computer then we can transfer that into another brain.
Recording Dream will be another fascinating application of BCI, which will bring the change in entire medical science. It is not so far as it may seems to you and that would be very exciting experience to all. Just very years ago it was a fairy tell but it will be real in upcoming future.
The future is AI and BCI it does not matter at all will you consider it or not. But another hypothetical concepts can be true. Not the robots but human will also able to download knowledge like in robotic film.
BCI had not been so easy to study since it require a lots of money and research to study it. This needs proper manage well defined organization to acts upon this. Some of the famous companies are listed below.
Neuralink is a neurotechnology company that deals with the implantation and development of BCI chipset. It was started in 2016 and was publicly announced in 2017. The owner and founder of neuralink is Elon Musk. The company’s headquarter is in San Francisco.
Neurable Inc. aimed to make a world where people can enjoy their life without any limitations. This was founded in 2015 by Ramesh Alcaide. Their vision is to create the world where the human will able to control the software and games with help of brain-computer interface integrated chipset.
Kernel is a neurotech company that deals with the development of BCI chip and they study the function of human brain will the help of that. The founder and CEO of kernel Bryan Johnson had himself invested more than $100 million in this company.
Emotiv inc. is an american whose headquater is at San Francisco, California. It is privately held bio-tech company which manufactures various products like EEG machine, neuroheadset, software development kit, mobile app and data products. Emotiv has been working on BCI for a long time.
Future of Biotechnology?
Since, Brain Computer Interface is one of the greatest achievements of Biotechnology as well as Science. Considering the very early and under-developement phase of the technology, the same has shown promising results and future development plans too.
According to us, Brain Computer Interface is the technology of the future. This would be largely used to treat the untreated paralysis to a great extent. Considering the huge and promising results of BCIs, the concerned authorities must be aware of the disuse of the same. If prevented the above cause, this could one of the most useful and disruptive tech of the future.
Conclusion & Statistical Analysis
Despite its increased risk of side effects or poor implementation, Brain Computer Interface was successful in occupying a market work of almost 13,085 Million Rupees (INR) at the time of writing, with the lead and expected of almost a huge hike of 12.5% in the coming years.
So, this was for it for today’s presentation. Hope you liked it. If not, leave a comment with the preferred suggestions. We would surely try to implement those in the upcoming ones. Thank You.